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Cruciate ligaments are important for the hinge joint function of the stifle joint (knee). A cranial cruciate ligament tear in dogs is similar to an anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, tear in humans; it can be an abrupt injury or a slow degradation over time.
Degenerative joint disease is more commonly known as arthritis. This is a progressive, non-infectious condition of the weight-bearing joints.
Femoral head and neck ostectomy is a surgical procedure during which the ball portion of the hip and the attachment (neck) portion of the femur are removed - in essence, removing the hip joint.
The opening to the trachea (“wind pipe”) normally is pulled open on two sides when breathing in, and relaxes when breathing out. In dogs and cats with laryngeal paralysis, the muscles that normally pull the airway open do not function properly. When an affected pet breathes in, the walls of the airway do not pull open—rather, they are sucked into the opening, or in severe cases sucked shut. Early in the condition, this creates increased noise when they breathe; later, it can completely obstruct their airway, and they can suffocate.
Limb sparing is a broad term referring to various surgical treatments for cancer in the limbs of animals where complete amputation would normally be recommended but is not possible due to concerns of concurrent orthopedic or neurologic conditions or poor expected recovery.
Medial patellar luxation is a condition in which the patella (knee cap) does not stay in its normal position in the groove on the end of the femur (thigh bone) and pops out, or luxates, to the inside surface of the knee.
Osteochondritis dissecans is an abnormality in the development of bone from cartilage. As a result, within joints such as the shoulder, elbow, knee, and hock (ankle), a flap of cartilage can develop, causing lameness.
A perineal hernia results from a weakening of the muscles that support the rectum (pelvic diaphragm). These hernias begin to bulge when they fill with fat, abdominal tissue, or the urinary bladder, or when part of the rectum slides into the pocket.
Platelets release growth factors and proteins that assist with tissue healing. PRP treatment has been promoted for tendon, ligaments, muscle, and joint injuries, which are known to be slow to heal.
A portosystemic shunt is an abnormal vein connecting the blood supply returning from the intestines to the vein returning blood to the heart, bypassing the liver (shunting).
The ureter is a tube that normally connects the kidney to the bladder. A SUB device is designed to maintain the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder when the ureter becomes obstructed.
A tibial plateau leveling osteotomy is a method of repairing a cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in a dog. A CCL tear in dogs is similar to an anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, tear in humans.
Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) is surgical treatment for cranial cruciate ligament injuries. The biomechanical rationale for TTA is that a forward shift in the position of the tibial tuberosity counteracts the instability created within the stifle following a CCL tear. In this procedure, the tibial tuberosity is secured with specially designed implants so that the patellar ligament is perpendicular to the tibial plateau.
A total ear canal ablation is the surgical removal of the entire ear canal. A second procedure called a bulla osteotomy is performed during the same surgery.
A total hip replacement (THR) is a surgical procedure during which the entire hip joint is replaced. This creates a new joint for the body to use. Typically, THR is used in older cases of hip dysplasia, severe trauma, or hip luxation. It can be performed on cats and dogs as small as 4 pounds.
Tracheal collapse is a progressive, degenerative disease that causes the cartilage rings in a dog’s trachea to lose their proper configuration. Intraluminal stenting and surgery have shown favorable results in patients suffering from this disease.
Triple pelvic osteotomy is a surgery performed in moderate- to large-breed dogs with early hip dysplasia (HD), with the goal of eliminating the laxity of early HD and preventing the development of potentially debilitating late HD.
Many different problems can affect the upper airway and compromise the flow of air. Brachycephalic (often referred to as “flat face”) dogs and cats are more prone to upper airway abnormalities and can often have several different conditions at once.
The ureter is a hollow tube that is designed to transport urine from the kidney to the bladder. An obstruction of the ureter can occur for various reasons, including ureteral stones, trauma, strictures (scarring or narrowing), etc. A ureteral stent is a device designed to maintain the flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder when the ureter becomes obstructed.
A urethrostomy is a surgical procedure that can be performed on dogs and cats to open the urethra. This is done in cases of urethral obstruction, which can be life-threatening.
Vascular Access Ports are medical implant devices occasionally recommended for patients who are undergoing long-term medical treatment or who require frequent blood tests for monitoring of chronic conditions.